Cannabis: A Pathway To Natural Healing


Introduction


Cannabinoids


Terpenes


Cannabis Strains


Endocannabinoid System in the Human Body


Administration


Ozone


Medical Cannabis


The Entourage Effect


The Beauty Behind the Molecule


Cannabis Extracts / Concentrates


Endocannabinoid Receptors


Novel Technology


Nano Technology

Introduction

Cannabis has played a major role in human history as a source of food, shelter, fibre, oils, medicine and as a psychoactive drug. Cannabis was domesticated multiple times throughout history and therefore spread throughout the world with a major role being human migrations. There are three main species of Cannabis (Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis). These three species have been cross bred over time and is the reason for thousands of different hybrids (with Indica and Sativa being more common than Ruderalis). Samples of seed oil and hemp fibre discovered in East Asia (4000 BC) proves cannabis has been around for a substantially long period and historians have been able to prove the use of high THC cannabis in ancient China (2500 BC), but theories suggest the use of this plant dates back even further.

Only a few decades ago major pharmaceutical, tobacco, alcohol and textile corporations campaigned against and demonized cannabis/hemp production and usage. This propaganda enabled these large corporations to completely monopolize the markets while feeding misinformation and ignoring the incredible properties and wide range of applications of cannabis. There has been an incredible acceleration in the growth of interest towards cannabis usage (medicinally and industrially) and this has driven major powers of the world to legalize its usage (USA, Canada, UK, Belgium, Portugal, Australia… (the list goes on). The rise of this industry is proving to have a much bigger influence than expected; from large industries to professional personal to the farmer looking to make his own medicine.

As a result of this movement and its fast-pace decriminalization around the world,  major investments into research has given rise to innovation like we have never seen before, and we are now not only rediscovering the powers of this plant but we are now enhancing its usage through novel technology and modern protocols.

The recent cannabis movement is far more influential than one might think: It is allowing people to find a connection with nature again, it is proving to be the key to opening the door to naturalistic/holistic medicines, practices and lifestyles. This is revolutionary!!! We are all part of this movement (whether you know it or not) that could possibly be what is needed to change our course of destruction of our planet and humans. 

Medical Cannabis

The detrimental prohibition of cannabis in the past restricted growth in the industry but as with everything in life there are still some positives to take from it. It forced cannabis cultivation to move indoors, which accelerated the exploration into creating optimal growing conditions as well as manipulating the plants in a way that was not possible outdoors. This resulted in the rapid evolution of cannabis genetics; indoor cannabis cultivation gave rise to artificial selection/breeding programs, giving rise to all the famous medical strains we have available to us today.
Artificial selection involves propagating and crossbreeding different strains to yield plants that produce high and/or low quantities of certain cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids or anthocyanins. These molecules are sought after for their different medical properties, nutritional value or simply for their flavour/scent profiles.
Medical cannabis strains have been bred for specific medicinal purposes, extended its usage and providing as an excellent alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, with mild to no side effects. These strains have been used to assist with symptoms of many common problems one might have. It has been proven (through medical trials and anecdotal reports) to assist with pain, inflammation, neurodegeneration, neuro-disorders, cancer, chronic disease, bone & joint problems, anxiety, insomnia… (the list is endless).

Cannabinoids

When it comes to cannabis the two most frequently referred to cannabinoids are: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is commonly known for its psychoactive effects, which unfortunately underplays its medicinal role in pain reduction / anti-inflammatory properties and unbeatable pain-relieving effects. CBD compliments and inhibits THC psychoactive effects and helps maintain homeostasis over irregular/diseased endogenous systems.

These molecules are naturally produced in vertebrates as analogous forms known as anandamide and 2-AG (endocannabinoids). THC and CBD are just two of over 100 types of cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant!

Many cannabinoids are produced in low amounts, but all have their own unique properties and medical/therapeutic effects. Through the increase in research and attention given to medical cannabis strains, we now understand that there are other cannabinoids which are just as effective and powerful as THC and CBD:

  • Cannabigerol (CBG) = appetite stimulant, inflammation, depression, anxiety, anti-fungal
  • Cannabichromine (CBC) = inflammation, depression, anxiety, anti-pathogenic
  • Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) = appetite suppression, inflammation, anticonvulsant
  • Cannabidivarin (CBDV) = anticonvulsant
  • Cannabinol (CBN) = sedative, cancer cell growth suppressant

All these cannabinoids can be found with acids groups attached to them which can be removed with the introduction of heat or enzymes. These prominent cannabinoids have shown to have unique qualities in isolated forms but in conjunction with each other they can have novel effects. THCV (produced in Durban Poison and Swazi Gold) for example, is an incredible appetite suppressant and treatment for insulin-resistance/diabetes. In contrast, CBG (produced in all over-ripened THC-containing plants) is a powerful appetite stimulant and anti-inflammatory. These two molecules are both non-psychoactive derivatives of THC and together with THC and CBD they interact in your body to help with symptoms of Alzheimer and neurodegeneration.

The Entourage Effect

We are only just starting to under the potentials of cannabinoids in maintaining, repairing and enhancing the bodies physical and mental well-being. One of the most incredible concepts that cannabis-related research focuses on is called the Entourage Effect. This is the phenomena which refers to the synergistic effects between different combinations and ratios of cannabinoids and other molecules such as terpenes, anthocyanins and flavonoids. Hundreds of different molecules synergies for enhanced and/or specialized/personalized balancing effects.

Terpenes

Terpenes/terpenoids, otherwise referred to as essential oils, are powerful phytomolecules produced by plants as components of (or precursors for) odours, hormones, steroids, pigments, vitamins and resins. For cannabis consumers these are highly pharmacological versatile molecules which can interact with cell membranes, neuronal/muscle ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors (such as cannabinoid receptors), G-protein coupled receptors and enzymes. They can alter the state of their surroundings to enhance/inhibit cell permeability. Many people are familiar with the following prominent terpenes:

  • Linalool (Lavender Oil) = insomnia, stress, depression, anxiety, pain, convulsions
  • Pinene (Pine Needles) = inflammation, asthma, bronchitis
  • Eucalyptol (Eucalyptus) = inflammation, asthma, mucus, pain
  • Terpineol (Basil) = sedative, anti-spasm and -twitches
  • Limonene (Citrus) = anxiety, depression, focus, anti-pathogenic
  • Myrcene (Thyme) = inflammation, cancer, sedative, analgesic
  • Caryophyllene (Rosemary) = inflammation, anti-septic
  • Borneol (Mint) = stress, fatigue and immunity
  • And over 300 MORE!

Beauty Behind The Molecule

All of this basically means that cannabis is not only incredible for producing cannabinoids but are super-plants that produce a full spectrum of hundreds of essential molecules which have shaped the history of medicine and nutrition. These molecules have been isolated and studied extensively for their therapeutic effects in human health and maintenance, but this has proven to just be the tip of the iceberg.

Research into medical cannabis has now shifted into studying these molecules in different combinations, concentrations and ratios in order to understand their synergistic effects for specific purposes: this interaction is known as the Entourage effect: The combination of molecules can enhance or suppress each other, and the outcome can lead to many novel effects.

Full spectrum extracts are therefore much more effective than isolates and can be used to create specialized as well as personalized supplements. For example, CBG is a common cannabinoid with anti-bacterial properties and when it is in the presence of THC, they have work in synergy to combat insomnia. This interaction between phytomolecules can become very complex when more are added into the mix.

Cannabis Strains

There are thousands of different cannabis strains which have been hybridized and backcrossed to produce desired flavours/scents, cannabinoids, growing styles, etc… This type of artificial selection has given rise to the most incredible range of recreation, industrial and medical strains, some of which contain exceptionally high concentrations of phytocompounds that are naturally found in trace amounts. This has allowed us to expand our understanding on the lesser-studied molecules which potentially have incredible medical and nutraceutical applications.

Personalized supplementation is gaining major traction in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries whereby highly curated combinations are being created not only for certain ailments/symptoms but for individuals. This concept considers all the imbalances (over-active or under-active metabolic processes) in your body and provides an entourage of molecules which will treat the causes, as opposed to modern medicine which just treats the symptoms and not the cause. Cannabis plants come in many different molecule profiles with completely unrelated and even contradictory effects.

Cannabis Extracts / Concentrates

There are thousands of different cannabis strains which have been hybridized and backcrossed to produce desired flavours/scents, cannabinoids, growing styles, etc… This type of artificial selection has given rise to the most incredible range of recreation, industrial and medical strains, some of which contain exceptionally high concentrations of phytocompounds that are naturally found in trace amounts. This has allowed us to expand our understanding on the lesser-studied molecules which potentially have incredible medical and nutraceutical applications.

Personalized supplementation is gaining major traction in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries whereby highly curated combinations are being created not only for certain ailments/symptoms but for individuals. This concept considers all the imbalances (over-active or under-active metabolic processes) in your body and provides an entourage of molecules which will treat the causes, as opposed to modern medicine which just treats the symptoms and not the cause. Cannabis plants come in many different molecule profiles with completely unrelated and even contradictory effects.

Endocannabinoid System in the Human Body

All vertebrates, from fish to birds and including humans, have evolved an endogenous system known as the Endocannabinoid System. Its role is to maintain homeostasis (balance) over all other endogenous systems (digestive, endocrine, neural, lymphatic, immune, etc…) to bring them back to a neutral state whether they were over-stimulated or under-stimulated. Besides for THC and CBD, which are produced naturally in analogous forms (Anandamide and 2AG), there are over 100 other types of cannabinoids which interact with your endocannabinoid receptors as well as other metabolic processes. When used in different combinations and ratios they can have completely different and even novel effects on your body.

There are so many possibilities when using a wide variety of cannabinoids, compared to isolates. This range of possibilities is even further enhanced through the incorporation of terpenes into the full spectrum. These powerful compounds are highly effective in small concentrations and can be used to create personalized medicines with specific desired effects. Terpenes can act in similar manners to cannabinoids but can be incorporated into many metabolic processes and are essential for certain ailments.

Endocannabinoid Receptors

Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that play major roles in stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), whereby over 5 types have been discovered (2AG and Anandamide being the most studied). They are discharged throughout the central nervous system, brain and peripheral nervous systems whereby they moderate several physiological and cognitive processes including fertility, appetite, mood, immunity, pain sensation, memory and hormones. Cannabinoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors called CB1 and CB2 receptors, which are activated/inhibited by endocannabinoids and analogous cannabinoids (from Cannabis plants) to control cellular responses to peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and free fatty acids.

Anandamide (THC-analogue) binds to CB1 receptors whereas 2AG (CBD-analogue) is mainly affiliated with CB2 receptors but in high concentrations competes with THC at the CB1 receptor sites. This means that when THC and CBD are used together, in a ratio of more CBD to THC, this feature of CBD enables you to benefit from THC while negating/reducing its psychotic effects. These two cannabinoids may be recognized as the most effective cannabinoids in stimulating our endocannabinoid system, but this is not the case. Not only do the other cannabinoids compete/synergise with THC and CBD, they also interact directly and/or indirectly with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors as well as many other metabolic processes.

CB1 receptors are found mainly in the brain, liver and intestines as well as in the central and peripheral nervous systems which is why THC stimulates appetite, overpowers nausea, interrupts the spread of pain signals and can be used to disturb the growth of cancer cells. CB2 receptors are found mainly in peripheral nervous system, the immune system, brain and in the gastrointestinal system, thereby playing a huge role in immunity, cell growth, neuro-regeneration and general cell homeostasis. These receptors can be found on the same cells/tissue as each other and can have completely different effects, depending on the cells metabolic functions.

Cannabis products have been produced for thousands of years for many different purposes using a range of approaches and recent research shows that cannabinoids can be used medically to alleviate symptoms such as pain, nausea, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis muscle spasms, epileptic seizures, Alzheimers, ADHD, trauma, depression, insomnia and many many more.

Administration

Cannabis products can come in many different forms whereby the most suitable ones for you depend on your purpose/aim of using cannabis. In other words, its not only necessary to understand the entourage of molecules are present in the product, but also the optimal form of administration for maximum results. There are 4 main approaches to administering cannabis: transdermal, transmucosal, ingestion and pulmonary.

Pulmonary (inhalation) delivery is the most commonly associated method of supplementation when it comes to cannabis, but it is not the most popular method when using it medically. There are many forms of inhalation such as smoking, vaping, dabbing and using inhalers, but many of these methods can be harsh on your throat and can come with other side effects (when smoked). Although it is seen as a recreational way of using cannabis, it is actually one of the most effective means accurately dosing yourself due to the high absorption and fast-acting effects. It is recommended to avoid smoking but rather vaping or inhaling the actives, to reduce the negative side effects,

Transdermal (topical) products can come in the form of salves, oils, patches, ointment, gel, sprays and creams. There are many benefits to using this method of application especially for bad skin conditions as well as localized joint/muscle pain and inflammation. Topicals will show fast relief on the area of application but will have a delayed onset systemic effect due to the low absorption rate of skin. Another huge benefit of this approach is that there is no risk of having psychoactive effects from THC if applied topically.

Ingestion (oral) of cannabis includes using capsules, edibles and infused beverages and growing in popularity in the recreational and medical markets. It is very difficult to accurately dose due to its delayed onset reaction and poor absorption but it has long-lasting effects from the gradual release of compounds. This is the preferred method for children and pets as you can supplement them using enticing snacks. If you require THC in your medication though, this method is not recommended since the THC gets converted into 11-Hydroxy-THC which is three times more psychoactive than plain THC. There are also novel solutions which can be employed to create homogenized solutions of nano-particles (nano-sized particles of active compounds) small enough to get directly absorbed by our digestive tracts.

Finally, Transmucosal delivery is growing in popularity and is giving rise to a new wave of cannabis-based supplements such as suppositories, nasal spray, tinctures, eye drops, etc… which come with an extensive list of benefits: fast-acting; great absorption rate; long-lasting; accurate dosing; and high bio-availability. Although this is possibly one of the best approaches, some of the methods can be inconvenient or distasteful/uncomfortable, such as using suppositories. The most common form of transmucosal delivery is called a tincture, and it is used sublingual (under your tongue). Tinctures are traditionally based with ethanol (drinking alcohol) as the carrier for active compounds, but since this tastes unpleasant and is often unpalatable, alternatives have been produced using MCT, coconut oil, glycerine, olive oil, hemp seed oil, etc…

Innovative Technology

Ozone (O3)

Ozone (O₃) is a colourless, pungent smelling gas made up of three Oxygen molecules and is naturally found in our atmosphere as a powerful shield against UV radiation and a solar purifier. This powerful molecule (when used correctly) not only increases the absorption and bioavailability of actives, but it also has some incredible effects on your body:

    • Anti-pathogenic and denatures bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, yeast, and protozoa
    • Stimulate the immune system and anti-inflammatory
    • Increase circulation by purifying blood and the lymph system
    • Balances hormonal and metabolic functions
    • Oxygenates cells increasing their function
    • Breaks down fat build-up and reduce the risk of complications from diabetes
    • Improving brain function and memory as well as enhances mood
    • Moisturises, repairs, hydrates and balances epithelial cells

Nano Technology

Nano technology takes advantage of ultrasonic impulses to produce nanoparticles from macromolecules and oils/waxes/fats. This process momentarily neutralizes the net charge of molecules in a solution causing them to repel each other and evenly disperse. Nanoparticles are incredible because they are chemically identical but are small enough to have altered intermolecular interactions for:

  • Enhanced cellular absorption rate and capacity of carrier
  • Expanded range of applications
  • Improved translucency/transparency in solution
  • Altered properties non-polar/hydrophobic molecules (i.e. water-soluble oil)
  • Increased surface area and bioavailability of actives

Electric Field Entrainment Techniques

Unique and ultramodern techniques take advantage of light, sound and geometry to impart NOR (naturally optimized resonance) frequencies into matter (objects, products, liquids, etc…) for powerful subtle-energy enhancements. These enhancements are “good vibrations” which mimic natural rhythms in natures electric fields and have been proven beneficial to humans, animals and plants:

  • Restructures and energizes water 
  • Enhanced bioavailability and deeper penetration of actives within a product
  • Natural anti-inflammatory and pain reliever
  • Improved cell oxygen utilization = rejuvenating and anti-aging
  • Decreased viscosity of liquids
  • Improved vitality and performance